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Not always but often you will see a nail that is thickened. Remember because the nail is thickened does not mean it is fungal. Thickened nails are seen in conditions like psoriasis or following trauma to the nail bed.
Other things you may see is a soft spongy nail which flakes and they can be smelly.
The only way you will know for sure is if a sample of the nail is taken and sent to the laboratory for analysis.
Ask you podiatrist for assistance. Often if the sample is not taken and handled correctly it can come back as a false negative result.
Topical applications: you will probably see a range of topical medicaments you can paint on the nail. In my experience this has little impact in fully resolving fungal growth in the nail.
Medication: Medication is available in tablet which is much more successful. However you will need to contact your GP to make sure this is appropriate for you based on your own medical background.
Often people choose to do nothing other than have their nails managed by having them reduced and cut professionally.
Laser treatment is an option which will be available from some podiatrists.
Other new treatments include clearanail which involves drilling tiny holes in the nail surface and applying topical agents into the infected nails. Research is ongoing in this field but the early signs are good.